*GOTO was considered harmful 50 years ago*

TL;DR: Don't ever use GoTo.

# Problems

Readability

Hard to follow code

# Solutions

Replace GOTO with structured code

Use exceptions

# Context

I started programming in Basic.

GOTO was heavily abused there.

I had to learn structured programming from scratch in Rehab mode.

# Sample Code

## Wrong

```
for x < 0 {
if x > -1e-09 {
goto small
}
z = z / x
x = x + 1
}
for x < 2 {
if x < 1e-09 {
goto small
}
z = z / x
x = x + 1
}
if x == 2 {
return z
}
x = x - 2
p = (((((x*_gamP[0]+_gamP[1])*x+_gamP[2])*x+_gamP[3])*x+_gamP[4])*x+_gamP[5])*x + _gamP[6]
q = ((((((x*_gamQ[0]+_gamQ[1])*x+_gamQ[2])*x+_gamQ[3])*x+_gamQ[4])*x+_gamQ[5])*x+_gamQ[6])*x + _gamQ[7]
return z * p / q
small:
if x == 0 {
return Inf(1)
}
return z / ((1 + Euler*x) * x)
}
```

## Right

```
for x < 0 {
if x > -1e-09 {
return small(x, z)
}
z = z / x
x = x + 1
}
for x < 2 {
if x < 1e-09 {
return small(x, z)
}
z = z / x
x = x + 1
}
if x == 2 {
return z
}
x = x - 2
p = (((((x*_gamP[0]+_gamP[1])*x+_gamP[2])*x+_gamP[3])*x+_gamP[4])*x+_gamP[5])*x + _gamP[6]
q = ((((((x*_gamQ[0]+_gamQ[1])*x+_gamQ[2])*x+_gamQ[3])*x+_gamQ[4])*x+_gamQ[5])*x+_gamQ[6])*x + _gamQ[7]
return z * p / q
small(x, z){
if x == 0 {
return Inf(1)
}
return z / ((1 + Euler*x) * x)
}
}
```

# Detection

[X] Automatic

In languages supporting *GOTO*, our linters can warn us against its usage.

# Tags

- Readability

# Conclusion

We acknowledged GOTO problems a few decades ago.

The problem is still present in modern languages.

Most programmers luckily avoid GOTO sentence. Next goal will be to consider harmful null usage.

*Courtesy XKCD*

# Relations

# More Info

# Credits

Photo by Jens Johnsson on Unsplash

It is practically impossible to teach good programming to students that have had a prior exposure to BASIC: as potential programmers they are mentally mutilated beyond hope of regeneration.

*Edsger Dijkstra*

This article is part of the CodeSmell Series.